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The Praxis® Tests

Supporting aspiring teachers on their journey to the classroom

Select a step to learn more about the Praxis® tests.


Standard-setting Studies

Why do a standard-setting study?

Standard-setting studies product passing score recommendations and produce serve two purposes.

First, they are designed to identify the level of knowledge for a test taker to be considered minimally qualified for independent, beginning practice. The level of knowledge is represented by a minimum test score that test takers need to achieve.

Second, the studies are designed to reconfirm the relevance (validity) of the test content for teachers in the adopting state.


Choosing a study method

Different standard-setting approaches are used for different test structures. ETS recommends and implements a modified Angoff method for selected-response (SR) items and a Benchmark method for constructed-response (CR) items.

One or more ETS standard-setting specialists conduct and facilitate each standard-setting study. For each study, a technical report is produced that describes the selection and representativeness of the participants involved and summarizes the standard-setting methods and results.


State-specific or multistate standard-setting study?

When a state chooses to adopt a test, the state either conducts a state-specific standard-setting study or participates in a multistate standard-setting study.

  • The state-specific study is conducted when the test is used only in that particular state, or when a state is considering adopting an existing test and there are no other states considering adopting the test at that time.
  • The multistate standard-setting study is used when multiple states are considering adopting a particular test title, such as when new and regenerated tests require new passing scores.

Both kinds of standard-setting studies:

  • include ETS convening panels of licensed practicing educators and college faculty from user states to conduct standard-setting studies
  • confirm that the knowledge and/or skills represented in the test content specifications are important for entry-level practice
  • recommend a passing score for the state(s) to consider when setting its own passing score

Learn more about the multistate standard-setting study process.

Read more about multistate standard-setting studies in Setting Standards on The Praxis Series® Tests: A Multistate Approach (PDF).

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